NCTM Standards
NCTM Standards 2000 Addressed Within the InterMath Probability Unit
Grade 68
NUMBER and OPERATIONS STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
In grades 68 all students should work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems.
ALGEBRA STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
In grades 68 all students should develop an initial conceptual understanding of different uses of variables.
 Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
In grades 68 all students should model and solve contextualized problems using various representations, such as graphs, tables, and equations.
GEOMETRY STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
In grades 68 all students should describe sizes, positions, and orientations of shapes under informal transformations, such as flips, turns, slides, and scaling.
 Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
In grades 68 all students should use geometric models to represent and explain numerical and algebraic relationships.
DATA ANALYSIS and PROBABILITY STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.
In grades 68 all students should use proportionality and a basic understanding of probability to make and test conjectures about the results of experiments and simulations.
PROBLEM SOLVING STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving;
 solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts;
 apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems;
 monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.
REASONING AND PROOF STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics;
 make and investigate mathematical conjectures;
 develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs;
 select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.
COMMUNICATION STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication;
 communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others;
 analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others;
 use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.
CONNECTIONS STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas;
 understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole;
 recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
REPRESENTATION STANDARD
Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to
 create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas;
 select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems;
 use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.
